Plant Explorers in Floyd County, Northwest Georgia, Southeastern United States

BOTANICAL OBSERVATIONS IN THE LATE 19th AND EARLY 20th CENTURIES, IN FLOYD COUNTY, NORTHWEST GEORGIA, SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES,

Henry W. Ravenel (1885), a photograph by Eugene A. Rau, courtesy of "The Archives of the Gray Herbarium", Harvard University, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts. © President and Fellows of Harvard College. The Archives of the Gray Herbarium. Eliza Frances Andrews (1840-1931), a botanist, and author of "A Practical Course in Botany" had a family in Floyd County, and she moved in Rome, Georgia In 1918.
© Copyright: State Of Alabama, Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Alabama

Records of botanical findings in the Floyd County began in 1540 with written reports by Rodrigo Ranjel and Garcilasso de la Vega who were members of a Spanish expedition lead by Ferdinand DeSoto. Their noted that Mississippian Native Americans in Ichiaha place (present-day Rome) used food crops such as maize (corn), pumpkins, and beans.
Aycock, Roger. All Roads To Rome. Rome: 1981: 17.


George Michael Lavender (1800-1839), came to this area in 1825, and opened the trading post at the foot hill of the Lavender Mountain. He exchanged goods with Native Cherokee Americans for medicinal plants such as: Pinkroot (Spigelia L.), Serpentaria (Aristolochia serpentaria L), Senega (Polygala senega L), and Ginseng (Panax.L.). Lavender then transported plants to Augusta, Georgia. The Lavender Mountain in Floyd County was named after him.
Battey, Robert. " Remarks upon the Medicinal Plants of Cherokee Georgia." The American Journal of Pharmacy 29. 5 (1857) (Archive, Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome)
Harris, John L. Letter to Miss Lewis Lipps, November 3, 1956. (Archive, Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome)


Prosper Jules Alphonse Berckmans (1830-1910), a nurseryman, a plant scientist, and co-founder of Fruitland Nurseries in Augusta, Georgia visited Rome in 1850. In his diary he recorded trees that he found in the Floyd County in October and November of 1850. Some of those trees were: Morus nigra L, Black Mulberry, Laurus sassafras L.; Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees; Cornus sanguinea L., Bloodtwig dogwood; Cornus florida L., Flowering dogwood; Corylus americana Walter, American hazelnut; Cercis siliquastrum L., Judas- tree; Crataegus oxyacantha L.; Crataegus nigra Waldst. & Kit., Hungarian thorn; Diospyros virginiana L., Common persimmon; Pinus sylvestris L., Scots pine; Gleditsia triacanthos L., Honeylocust; Salix ×pendulina, Weeping willow; Betula L., Birch; Betula alba L.; Rhododendron arborescens (Pursh) Torr., Dwarf azalea; Euonymus L. , Burning bush; Liriodendron L., Tuliptree; Fagus sylvatica L., European beach; Castanea Mill., Chesnutt; Acer pseudoplatanus L., Sycamore maple; Acer saccharum Marsh.; Sugar maple; hickory, and walnut.
Berckmans, Prosper “Voyage in America in 1850” Diary:22; Translation by Mrs. Edward Lee White (Ginette), Atlanta, Georgia (1972)
(Rome Area History Museum, Rome, Georgia)


Robert Battey (1828-1895), a citizen of Rome, was a surgeon with an international reputation as well as a pharmacist. In 1848 he came to work in Rome’s drugstores. Nine years later, in 1857, he published a report about native and cultivated medicinal plants from this area. Battey recorded an abundance of growth of the following plants : Anthemis cotula L., Dog Fennel, Eupatorium perfoliatum L., Bonesset, Cassia marilandica L. ,Wild Senna, Chenopodium ambrosioides var anthelminticum (L.) Gray, Wormseed, Chimaphila umbellate (L.) W. Bart., Pipsissewa, Datura L., Stramonium, Frasera Walt. ( Syn. Swertia caroliniensis (Walter) Kuntze), Columbo, Monarda L., Monarda, Podophyllum peltatum L., May-Apple, Sanguinaria L.,Bloodroot, Spigelia L., Pinkroot, Menispermum canadensis L., Moonseed, Cornus florida L, Flowering Dogwood, Prunus virginiana L., Choke-Cherry, and Sassafras Nees, Sassafras.
Battey, Robert. " Remarks upon the Medicinal Plants of Cherokee Georgia." The American Journal of Pharmacy 29. 5 ( 1857)
Harris, John L. Letter to Miss Lewis Lipps, November 3, 1956. (Archive, Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome)


Henry William Ravenel (1814-1887), a botanist, author of many extensive works on fungi, and a plantation owner from South Carolina visited Floyd County in 1869, 1871, and 1872. In July 1871, Ravenel made discovery of Cryphaea ravenelii Aust., Ravenel's Cryphaea Moss and in September he collected these mosses: Pylaisiella intricate (Hedw.) Grout, Cryphaea glomerata Bruch & Schimp. ex Sull., and Ptychomitrium incurvum (Schwaegr.) Spruce. The other Ravenel's collections of mosses and liverworts were: Weissia controversa Hedw., Orthotrichum ohioense Sull. & Lesq. in Aust., Campylophyllum hispidulum (S. E. Bridel) L. Hedenäs, Bryhnia graminicolor (Brid.) Grout, Anomodon minor (Hedw.) Fürnr., Anomodon rostratus (Hedw.) Schimp., Clasmatodon parvulus (Hampe) Hook. & Wils. ex Sull., Leskea Hedw., Fissidens fontanus (B. Pyl.) Steud., Fissidens subbasilaris Hedw., Fissidens adianthoides Hedw., Tortella humilis (Hedw.) Jenn., Orthotrichum strangulatum P. Beauv., and liverwort Calypogeia trichomanis. On July 4, 1872 he met Dr. Chapman in Rome, Georgia, and they botanized along the banks and the cliffs of the Coosa River. Ravenel also collected: Arabis georgiana Harper, (Arabis pycnocarpa sensu Hopkins), Georgia's Rockcress, Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir., Smooth Rockcress, Lobelia spicata Lam., Palespike Lobelia, Paronichyia canadensis (L.) Wood, Forked Chickweed, Paronichyia fastigiata (Raf.) Fern, Forked Chickweed, Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. var. commutatum (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Morong, (Syn. Polygonatum commutatum (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) A. Dietr.), Smooth Solomon's Seal, and Polygonatum pubescens (Wild.) Pursh., Solomon’s Seal, from Floyd County.
Austin, Coe F. "Bryological Notes." Botanical Gazette." 2.5 (1877) : 89-90.
Core, Earl L. "The North American Species of Paronychia." American Midland Naturalist Vol. 26, No. 2 (1941): 378.
Data obtained from Herbarium of The New York Botanical Garden Vascular Plant Catalog: (http://www.nybg.org/bsci/hcol/vasc/ ). New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street and Kazimiroff Boulevard Bronx, NY 10458
Data obtained from Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, Head, Department of Asian Botany at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, on March 9, 2005.
Hopkins, Milton. "Arabis in Eastern and Central North America." Rhodora Vol. 39. No. 460 (1937): 113, 162.
Manuel, Monte G. "Studies in Cryphaeaceae I. Revision of the Genus Cryphaea in North America North of Mexico."The Bryologist 76.1 (1973): 154, 159-161.
McVaugh, Rogers. "Studies in the Taxonomy and Distribution of the Eastern North American Species of Lobelia" Rhodora Vol. 38, No.453 (September, 1936.) : 312.
Ownbey, Ruth P. "The Liliaceous Genus Polygonatum in North America." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 31 (1944) : 389, 407.
Ravenel, Henry W. The Private Journal of Henry William Ravenel 1859-1887: 360-361. Edited by Arney Robinson. Childs, Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1947.
University of South Carolina Herbarium (USCH) Columbia, SC 29208; http://cricket.biol.sc.edu/acmoore/about.html


Alvan (Alvin) Wentworth Chapman (1809-1899) lived in Apalachicola, Florida for the main part of his life. He was a physician, and also a botanist who defined 144 species. In 1860 Chapman published the first edition of "Flora of the Southern United States", followed by second edition in 1883 and a third in 1897. Dr Chapman had a family member that lived in south Rome so his visits to Rome were often. The collection years of his specimens from Floyd County bare the dates 1872, 1882 and 1891. The collections of those plants were represented in his manual. In Floyd County Dr Chapman made first discovery of : Aureolaria patula (Chapman) Pennell, (Syn. Dasystoma patula Chapm.), Spreading Yellow Foxglove, Solidago flaccidifolia Small , Mountain Goldenrod, Scutellaria incana Biehler var. punctata (Chapm.) Mohr, (Syn. Scutellaria canescens Nutt. var. punctata Chapm.), Skullcap, Scutellaria montana Chapm., Large-Flowered Skullcap, Isoetes appalachiana D.F. Brunton & D.M. Britton), (Syn. Isotes Engelmanni var. Georgiana Engelm.), Appalachian Quillwort, Ilex longipes Chapman ex Trel., Georgia Holly, Viburnum bracteatum Rehder, Limerock Arrow-Wood, Crataegus triflora, Three-Flower Hawthorn., and some synonyms.
Dr. Chapman noted that the Large-flowered Skullcap was collected in the "dry woods and margin fields in the mountains of Georgia," the Spreading Yellow Foxglove were found in the “Valley of the Coosa River, near Rome, Georgia” and on the “banks of Horse-leg Creek, a tributary of the Coosa River.” In the slow-moving water of the Horseleg Creek, near the Coosa River, Dr. Chapman collected the first specimen of Appalachian quillwort.
Chapman's other collections from Floyd County, Georgia

Beadle, Chauncey D. " Notes on the Botany of the Southeastern States, II." Botanical Gazette, Vol. 25, No. 5. (1898) : 360.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Crataegus. I."Botanical Gazette, Vol. 28, No. 6. (1899) : 410-412.
Boom, Brian M., " Synopsis of Isoetes in the Southeastern United States." Castanea 47 (1982): 41-42.
Chapman, A. W. "An Enumeration of Some Plants-Chiefly From the Semi-Thropical Regions of Florida-Which are Either New, or Which Have Not Hitherto Been Recorded as Belonging to the Flora or the Southern States." Botanical Gazette, Vol. 3, No. 2. (Feb., 1878) : 10-12.
Chapman, A. W. Flora of the Southern United States: 3rd ed. New York: American Book Company, 1897: 09, 26, 139, 190, 223, 488, 572, 604, 641.
Chapman, A. W. Flora of the Southern United States: 2nd ed. Supplement. New York: American Book Company, 1884: 636, 643.
Epling, Carl C. “The American species of Scutellaria.” University of California Publications in Botany Vol. 20. (1942): 80-81.
Sargent, Charles S. Trees and Shrubs, Illustrations of New and Little Known Ligneous Plant Vol.I & Vol.II Boston and New York: Houghton Millinand Comp. 1905: 135.
Small, John K. " Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern Unted States-XIV" Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 25, No. 9. (1898) : 477-479.


Julien Deby (1826-1895), was a Belgium collector of the diatoms and the shells. His collections included the diatoms from the Antarctic Ocean, Southern Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, France, Belgium and Untied States. In 1877 he explored the Oostanula River in Floyd County and noticed on the river banks the cane barriers of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Chapm. ( Syn. Arundinaria macrosperma Michx.) 7.5 m high.
Deby, Julien. " Relation succincte d'une excursion faite. Aux Bords De L'Oostanaula En Georgie." Extrait des Bulletins de la Societe Malacologique de Belgique 12 (1877): 4.


Gerald McCarthy (1858-1915) was a first State Botanist of North Carolina at Raleigh. In July 1888 he came in Rome, Floyd County and collected Chamaecrista fasciculate (Michx.) Greene, Partridge pea, Rudbeckia hirta L, Blackeyed susan, and Silphium scaberrimum Elliott, Roughleaf rosinweed.
Pennell, Francis W. "Notes on Plants of the Southern United States-III." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club Vol.44 No. 7, 1917: p.351
Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History, Botany Collection, US Herbarium (May 2014).


John Muir (1838-1914), was the most famous conservationist and the naturalist of the United States. Muir also known as The Father of National Parks and Wilderness Prophet was in Rome on the rainy October 1, 1898(7). He was in the company of Charles S. Sargent and William M. Canby. They botanized along the Coosa River and on the “bluff of river”. In his journal Muir noted that the trees that he found there were "5 and ½ doz. new to me or nearly so."
Muir, John. "Botany Trip with Sargent and Canby" AMSS journal, John Muir Papers, Jul-Nov 1897(8), Microfilm Edition, Reel 28, 03506


Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927), a botanist and Director of the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard University, botanically observed Floyd County in 1898, 1899, and 1900. In his work, "Manual of the Trees of North America (Exclusive of Mexico)", which was published in two volumes in 1905 and in 1922, Sargent recorded the species of the trees he and others found in Floyd County. One of Sargent's collection from Floyd County was a specimen in bud of Viburnum bracteatum Rehder, Limerock Arrow-Wood, for the gardens at Biltmore, North Carolina. In 1989, Sargent discovered in Floyd County Crataegus sargenti Beadle, Sargent's Hawthorn. Sargent also recorded Carya ovata (Miller) K. Koch, Scaly Bark-Hickory from Rome.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Crataegus. I."Botanical Gazette, Vol. 28, No. 6. (1899) : 407-408
Sargent, Charles S. Trees and Shrubs, Illustrations of New and Little Known Ligneous Plant Vol.I & Vol.II Boston and New York: Houghton Millinand Comp. 1905: 135.
Sargent, Charles S. "New or Little Known North American Trees" Botanical Gazette Vol. 2 (1899): 92-94.
Sargent, Charles S. "New or Little Known North American Trees. IV." Botanical Gazette Vol. 33, No. 2. (1902): 113-114.
Sargent, Charles S. "Notes on North American Trees.II. Carya" Botanical Gazette Vol.66, No. 3 (1918): 234.
Sargent, Charles S. Manual of the Trees of North America (Exclusive of Mexico) Vol.I New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1965: 14-15, 244, 315-316, 405, 406.
Sargent, Charles S. Manual of the Trees of North America (Exclusive of Mexico) Vol.II New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1965: 450-451, 510, 520, 706, 709.


William Marriott Canby (1831-1904), a plant collector and businessman from Wilmington, Delaware, observed the vegetation in Floyd County in 1898 and 1899. Some of his collected plants ware Lobelia puberula Mich. var. glabella Hooker, Downy Lobelia, and Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir., Smooth Rockcress.
Hopkins, Milton. "Arabis in Eastern and Central North America." Rhodora Vol. 39. No. 460 (1937): 162.
Data obtained from Robert F.C. Naczi, Curator, Claude E. Phillips Herbarium (DOV), Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901., on October 25, 2004.
Data obtained from James C. Solomon, a Curator of the Herbarium Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, on March 17, 2005.
McVaugh, Rogers. "Studies in the Taxonomy and Distribution of the Eastern North American Species of Lobelia" Rhodora Vol. 38, No.452 (August, 1936) : 294.


Chauncey Delos Beadle (1866-1950), a botanist from the Biltmore Herbarium in North Carolina made a visit to Rome in May and September of 1899, and discovered: Crataegus iracunda Beadle, Stolonbearing Hawthorn, Crataegus sororia Beadle, Crataegus aemula Beadle, Rome Hawthorn. Stolonbearing Hawthorn and Rome Hawthorn were discovered in " flat woods and Valley of Horse-leg creek" near Rome. In Floyd County Beadle also found the first specimens of Philadelphus floridus Beadle, Florida Mock Orange. He also collected Acer leucoderme Small, Chalk Maple, in Rome.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Crataegus. I."Botanical Gazette, Vol. 28, No. 6. (1899) : 407-409, 416-417.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Crataegus. II."Botanical Gazette, Vol. 30, No. 5. (1900) : 336-337.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " New species of thorns from the Southeastern States, II ." Biltmore Botanical Studies 1. (1902a.) : 53-54, 84-85, 124, 134-135, 144-145. (Archive, Shorter College Library, Rome)
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Philadelphus." Biltmore Botanical Studies 1. (1902b.): 159-160. (Archive, Shorter College Library, Rome)


Charles Lawrence Boynton (1864-1943) was a collector for the Biltmore Herbarium of the George W. Vanderbilt estate and a research companion of Beadle. Boynton found Georgia's first Ulmus serotina Sarg., September Elm, on the hills in the neighborhood of Rome and Crataegus tristis Beadle, Minute Hawthorn. In May of 1899, Boynton also made the first Georgia collections of Crataegus engelmannii Sarg., Engelmann's Hawthorn from Rome, Georgia. Beadle, Chauncey D. " New species of thorns from the Southeastern States, II ." Biltmore Botanical Studies 1. (1902a.) : 84-85.
Sargent, Charles S. "New or Little Known North American Trees. II." Botanical Gazette Vol. 31, No. 1. (1901): 2-3.


Biltmore Herbarium collectors from Biltmore, North Carolina found Oenothera tetragona Roth var. longistipata (Pennell) Munz, (Syn. Oenothera fruticosa L. ssp. fruticosa), Narrowleaf Evening-Primrose, and Sisyrinchium tenellum EP Bicknell, Blue-Eyed Grass in Floyd County in 1899.
Bicknell, Eugene P. " Studies in Sisyrinchium-VI: Additional New Species from Southern States" Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 26, No. 12. (1899) : 610-612.
Munz, Philip A. " Studies in Onagraceae X. The Subgenus Kueiffa ( Genus Oenothera) and Miscellaneous New Species of Oenothera" Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 64, No. 5. (1937) : 287-306.


Charles Thedore Mohr (1824 - 1901), an author of Plant Life Of Alabama, a naturalist, and a botanist from Mobile Alabama, botanically observed this area in June 1881, and collected Arabis patens Sullivant, Spreading Rockcress near Cave Spring in Floyd County.
Hopkins, Milton. "Arabis in Eastern and Central North America." Rhodora Vol. 39. No. 460 (1937): 162.
Mohr, Charles. Plant Life Of Alabama. Contributions From U.S. National Herbarium. Vol.VI. July 31, 1901. Washington: U.S. Department Of Agriculture, 1901; 528.


Willard Webster Eggleston (1836-1935), a botanist and a plant collector, came in April and August of 1900, 1901 and in 1908 to Rome where he collected some Hawthorn specimens and a specimen of a Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link., Purple Cliff-Brake Fern.
Herbarium Collections from Floyd County, Georgia at University of North Carolina Herbarium (http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/)., University of North Carolina Herbarium, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280


Allen Hiram Curtiss (1845-1907), a botanist and plant collector from Jacksonville in Florida visited Floyd County in May 1901 and collected: Trifolium reflexum L., Buffalo clover, Carex cherokeensis Schwein., Cherokee sedge, Carex flaccosperma Dewey, Thinfruit sedge, Carex oxylepis Torr. & Hook. , Sharpscale sedge, and Euphorbia pubentissima Michx. , False flowering spurge.
Herbarium collections from Floyd County, Georgia at Georgia Herbarium (GA) University Of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.


Ronald McMillan Harper (1878-1966), was a field botanist, plant collector, and professor at Columbia University in New York. He spent ten years of his childhood in Northwest Georgia. In January 1904 when Harper was working on The Catalogue of Georgia Trees, he observed population of Pinus palustris P. Mill., Longleaf Pine, on Horseleg and Heath Mountains in Floyd County. He also found a variety of species on the banks of the Coosa River including: Nyssa uniflora Wang., ( syn. Nyssa aquatica L. ), Tupelogum, Acer saccharium L., White Silver Maple, and Rhus glabra L., Smooth Sumac. Sumac stems were 9 m tall with the diameters of 18 cm, a record for this specie. Near the Coosa River, a 1.9 m diameter Quercus michauxii Nut., (syn. Quercus lyrata Walt.), Swamp Chestnut Oak was found. On the banks of the Etowa River, Harper found specimens of Catalpa bignonioides Walter, Catawba, with a 76cm trunk diameter and Staphylea trifolia L., Bladder-Nut, with a 15cm trunk diameter. In the bottoms of the creeks, trunk dimensions of Aesculus flava Ait., (Syn: Aesculus octandra Marsh ), Yellow Buckey reached 30 cm in diameter and 12 m in height.
Some of the other records were: Mohrodendron carolinum L. ( syn. Halesia carolina L. ), Cottonwood, Gleditsia aquatica Marsh., Water Locust, Prunus americana Marsh, American Plum, Pyrus angustifolia Aiton., ( syn. Malus angustifolia (Aiton.) Michaux. ), Crab-Apple, Platanus occidentalis L., Sycamore, Morus rubra L., Red Mulberry, Celtis occidentalis L., Hackberry, Quercus nigra L., Water Oak, Quercus phellos L., Willow Oak, Juglans nigra L., Black Walnut, Juglans cinerea L., White Walnut, Juniperus virginiana L., Red Cedar, and Pinus taeda L., Loblolly Pine.
Harper, Roland M. Southern Woodlands 5 (1907) 13: The Georgia Forest Association.
Harper, Roland M. “Some Noteworthy Stations For Pinus palustris.” Torreya Vol.5, No.4 (1905): 57.


Thomas Grant Harbison (1862-1936), was a botanist and collector of southern woody plants for the Arnold Arboretum and C. S. Sargent. He visited Rome in September and October of 1910 and collected a specimen of Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, (Syn. Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch var. latifolia Sarg.), Bitternut Hickory.
Sargent, Charles S. Trees and Shrubs, Illustrations of New and Little Known Ligneous Plant Vol.I & Vol.II Boston and New York: Houghton Millinand Comp. 1905: 206.


Francis Whittier Pennell (1886-1952), was a curator of botany at Academy of Natural Sciences from Philadelphia and the author of "The Scrophulariaceae". Pennell observed the flora of this region in August of 1912. He collected the specimens of: Commelina virginica L., Virginia Dayflower, Echinacea pallida (Nutt.)Nutt. Blacksamson Echinacea, Lobelia spicata Lam. var. leptostachys (A. DC.) Mackenzie & Bush, Palespike Lobelia, Scutellaria ovata Hill ssp. bracteata (Benth.) Epling, (Syn. Scutellaria versicolor Nut.), Heartleaf Skullcap, and Mecardonia acuminata (Walt.) Small var. acuminate, (Syn: Pagesia acuminata (Walt.) Pennell; Bacopa acuminata (Walt.) B.L. Robins ), Axiflower.
Duncan, Wilbur H. “ Preliminary Reports on the Flora of Georgia-4. Notes on the Distribution of Flowering Plants Including Species New to the State.” Castanea, Vol. 15, No.4 (1950): 157.
McVaugh, Rogers. "Studies in the Taxonomy and Distribution of the Eastern North American Species of Lobelia" Rhodora Vol. 38, No.453 (September, 1936.) : 307.
Pennell, Francis W. "Notes on Plants of the Southern United States-I." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club Vol.43 No. 2 ( Feb. 1916): 102-104.
Pennell, Francis W. The Scrophulariaceae Of Eastern Temperate North America. Monographs No.1 Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1935: 67.
Pittman, Albert B. " Systematic Studies in Scutellaria Section Mixtae (Labiatae)." Diss. Vanderbilt University, Tennessee, 1988: 190-192.


Eliza Frances Andrews (1840-1931), a writer, a teacher, and botanist, was also a citizen of Rome in Georgia. Her book, "A Practical Course in Botany", was translated in French in 1911, and used in France’s schools. In Floyd County, Andrews observed: Lonicera japonica Thunb., Japanese Honeysuckle, Pleopeltis polypodioides (L.) Andrews & Windham ssp. polypodioides, (Syn. Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt), Resurrection Fern, Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf., Devil's-tongue, and White Oak. On the Lavander Mountain in Floyd County, Andrews recorded Galax urceolata (Poir.) Brummitt, (Syn. Galax aphylla auct. non L.), Beetleweed, and Pinus palustris P. Mill., Longleaf Pine.
Andrews, Eliza F. “The Galax Odor.” Torreya Vol.15. No.1 (1915): 16-18.
Andrews, Eliza F. " Agency of Fire in Propagation of Longleaf Pines." Botanical Gazette, Vol. 64, No. 6. (1917) : 497-508.
Andrews, Eliza F. “The Japanese Honeysuckle in the Eastern United States.” Torreya Vol.19. No.3 (1919): 38.
Andrews, Eliza F. “Habits and Habitats of the North American Resurrection Fern.” Torreya Vol.20. No.5 (1920): 95-96.
Andrews, Eliza F. “Remarkable Behavior of A Veteran White Oak.” Torreya Vol.26. No.3 (1926): 54-55.
Andrews, Eliza F. (Archive, Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome, GA)


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:
I want to express my gratitude to the Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome, Georgia, Shorter College Library, Rome, Georgia, and Memorial Library, Berry College, Mt. Berry, Georgia, for all the help that I received. Jelena Crawford edited my writing, and I am very grateful to her as well.

From 2004-2009 before all the data of their respectful Herbaria has been computerized these curators and data managers provided me with data for the Floyd County of Georgia and I am very thankful. Curtis J. Hansen, Curator at the John D. Freeman Herbarium at Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Carol A. McCormick, Assistant Curator for University of North Carolina Herbarium, Chapel Hill, NC, Alina Freire-Fierro, Collection Manager of PH Herbarium the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, Head, Department of Asian Botany at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, James C. Solomon, a Curator of the Herbarium Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, Steve Seiberling from the University of North Carolina Herbarium who provided the ferns' images, Tina O. Johnson, Collections Manager at Murray State University Herbarium, Murray, KY, Robert F.C. Naczi, Curator, Claude E. Phillips Herbarium, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, a Kent D. Perkins Manager of the Collection, University of Florida Herbarium, Gainesville, FL, Thomas A. Zanoni, Collections Manager, Hebrarium of the New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY, and Wendy B. Zomlefer, Curator and Kristian D. Jones, Collections Manager of the University of Georgia (GA) Herbarium, Athens, GA.
Lisa DeCesare, Head of Archives & Public Services at Botany Libraries, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, donated scan of Henry William Ravenel's photograph in July 2009.

References :
1. Venard, Haskell (1950-1969) : “Plants reported in the literature from ”Cliffs of the Coosa” or “Coosa river Valley”; “Plants reported in the literature from the vicinity of Rome, Floyd Co., GA”; ”Early collectors who visited Rome”
2. Copy of E. F. Andrews's photograph was purchased from State of Alabama’s Archive, Montgomery, Alabama

Last updated on January 27, 2017.
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HAWTHORNS (CRATAEGUS: FLOYD COUNTY, GEORGIA

ALVAN W. CHAPMAN

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