by Zvezdana Ukropina- Crawford

Fruit,the pomes of Crataegus intricata Lange (Syn. Crataegus Boyntonii Beadle) at the Oconee Forest Park, The University of Georgia,
Athens, October 18, 2015

Hawthorns, Haws, (Crataegus; Family: Rosaceae) are thorny bushes or small trees with crooked branches.
Leaves simple and usually lobed; flowers with 5 white or pink petals, stamens 5-25; anthers white, yellow, pink, or red; pome, a fruit small, globose or ovate; color red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or black; 2-5 pyrenes.
There are more that 1000 Crataegus species published worldwide. In 1988 W. H. Duncan suggested that there are about 35 species of Crataegus in the Southeastern United States. In the South they occur at the edges of the woods, in the meadows, on the mountain slopes and in the swamps.

Identification: thorns length, curvature, color; leaves shapes, margins, arrangement (simple, alternate); flowers 1- 3 flowered or in inflorescences (branched cymes); number of stamens; color of anthers; pedicels length; sepals length, margins, glands; pomes, a fruit's shape, size, color; pyrenes number, length, shape
Different reproduction processes of hawthorns had resulted in the regional species' variations that have complicated their identification.

Athens-Clarke County (33o 57' 20"N 83o 23' 00"W) , is located in the rolling hills of of the Upland Appalachian Piedmont in Northeast Georgia. The North and Middle Oconee Rivers converge in the Clarke County to form the Oconee River. The climate is subtroptical with the humid hot summers and mild winters. The bedrocks of the Clarke County are granite and Carolina schists formed in Pre-Cambrian time. Two main types of soils are clay loam (red clay land), and sandy loam (gray sandy land) from Cecil Series.

Crataegus spathulata Michx., Littlehip Hawthorns in the Oconee Forest Park,
The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
(June 13, 2015)


Crataegus aestivalis (Walter) Torr. & A. Gray, Mayhaw

Crataegus armentalis Beadle, "Head" hawthorn

Crataegus crus-galli L., Cockspur Hawthorn

Crataegus flava Aiton, Yellowleaf hawthorn

Crataegus intricata Lange
(Syn. Crataegus Boyntonii Beadle), Boyntoni hawthorn

Crataegus phaenopyrum (L. f.) Medik., Washington hawthorn

Crataegus punctate Jacq., Dotted hawthorn (Syn. Crataegus collina Chapman)

Crataegus spathulata Michx., Littlehip Hawthorn

Crataegus uniflora Muenc., One-flowered hawthorn

Crataegus viridis L., Green hawthorn


In 1904, the schoolchildren at the Normal School in Athens, Georgia, for the Arbor Day's celebration dug hawthorns and other trees from forests and planted them in the school's grounds.

Weekly Banner Athens, 1904.

One of the pioneer botanists in Athens was a Professor of Mathematics at the Franklin College in Athens (The University of Georgia), William Green. Green collected plants between 1814 -1816 in Athens and Clarke County for the Stephan Elliot's manual "Sketch of Botany from South Carolina and Georgia" published in 1821.
Aira triflora Elliott and Viola tripartita Elliot were discovered by Green in Athens, and published by Elliott in his manual.

Stephen Elliott (1771-1830) a planter, naturalist, and botanist from the South Carolina published the first manual of botany about plants collected in the Southeastern United States. In 1821 he published findings of Crataegus spathulata Michx. from the "upper dist of Georgia".

Ronald McMillan Harper graduated from the University of Georgia in Athens in 1897 and in late 1890's he botanized in Athens and Clarke County. In 1897 he recorded Crataegus intricata Lange (Syn. Crataegus Boyntonii Beadle ) in low woods. Crataegus uniflora Muench. Harper collected at the rocks outcrops in Athens. Harper's records of the hawthorns from Piedmont in 1901 were: Crataegus flava (Crataegus michauxii Pers.), Crataegus spathulata, Crataegus pruinosa (Crataegus Georgiana Sarg.), and Crataegus crus-galli. In 1904 Ronald M. Harper botanized in the Floyd County, Northwest Georgia.

Jack T. May conducted a study in 1962 of the forest mixed with oaks (Quercus sp), tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) in the Clarke County, Georgia and recorded undestory comunity of: Crataegus spp., serviceberry (Amelanchier Medik. spp.), buckeye (Aesculus sylvatica W. Bartram), mulberry (Morus rubra L.) , American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana Walter ), eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch), sparkleberry (Vaccinium arboreum Marshall), redbud (Cercis L. spp.), black haw (Viburnum spp.) and beech (Fagus L.).

1. Duncan, Wilbur H., and Marion B. Duncan. Trees of the Southeastern United States. Athens and London: The Univeristy of Georgia Press, 1988.
2. Davis, Richard B. "Forgotten Scientists in Georgia and South Carolina" The Georgia Historical Quarterly Vol. 27, No. 3 (1943) : 271-284
3. Duncan, Wilbur H., and John T. Kartesz. Vascular Flora of Georgia. Athens: The Univ. of Georgia Press, 1981: 67-69.
4. Elliott, Stephan. A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia . Charleston: Vol. I. 1816-1821: 153, 302, 552
5. Harper, Roland M. "The Georgia Forest Association." Southern Woodlands 5 (1907): 3-19. [Special Collections Libraries, University of Georgia, June 2015, Athens]
6. Harper, Roland M. " Notes on the Flora of Middle Georgia" Bulletin of the Torreya Botanical Club Vol.28, No.8 (1901): 454-484.
7. Lance, Ron. Haws. A Guide to Hawthorns of the Southeastern United States. Mills River, NC: Ron Lance. 2014.
8. May, Jack T. "Composition of upland hardwood forests of the Georgia Piedmont." Georgia Academy of Science 26 (1) (1968) :39-44.
9. Nelson, Thomas C. "The original forests of the Georgia Piedmont" Ecology Vol 38, No.3 (1957): 390-397
10. Parizek, Eldon J. "A prelimnary Investigation of the Geology of Clarke County, Georgia" University of Georgia, Bulletin Number 60, The State of Georgia Geological Survey, 1953
11. "Arbor Day Celebrated By Practice School" Weekly Banner , Athens, Georgia, 16 Dec. 1904: 6 (Digital Library of Georgia- Athens Historic Newspapers)
12. Zhang, Donglin (compiled) "Plant Inventory of The State Botanical Garden, The University of Georgia" edited by Shirley Hartzler and A. J. Lewis, March 1992.
13. Ukropina-Crawford, Zvezdana "New Discovered Species of Hawthorns (Crataegus) in Floyd County, Northwest Georgia ", Discoveries of the New Plants Species in Northwest Georgia, Southeastern United States in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries
14. Images by Ukropina-Crawford, Zvezdana
15. USDA, NRCS. 2015. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 14 May 2015). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Last updated on January 04, 2018.







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